GENETIKA NESVJESNOG – Leopold Szondi
SUDBINA JE IZBOR, A IZBOR JE SUDBINA.
Shiksalanalyse – Fateanalysis - analiza sudbine
Leopold Szondi – Humana genetika nesvjesnog - Shiksalanalyse i genotropizam
Ovaj poznati mađarski psihijatar rođen je 11.03.1893.g. u Nytri, a umro je 24.01.1986.g. u Küssnacht am Rigi, u Švicarskoj, u 93. godini života. Sahranjen je na groblju Dunantstrasse 3 u Zürichu.
Leopold i njegova supruga Lili bili su roditelji Peteru i Veri.
Od 1927. do 1941.g. bio je profesor u Budapestu, a 1944.g. je preselio u Zürich.
Na osnovi psihoanalize individualnog nesvjesnog prema Sigmundu
Freudu i kolektivnog nesvjesnog prema C.G. Jungu, razvio je tzv. "shiksal-analyse"
(šikzal) ili "analizu sudbine", tj. sudbinsko-analitičku terapiju.
Razvio je tzv. "drive-diagram" i kreirao koncept "familijarnog nesvjesnog" koje je smjestio između kolektivnog i individualnog.
Njegove ideje je dalje razvio prof. Jacques Schotte na Katoličkom Universitetu u Louvainu, i predstavio ih kao "patoanalizu" (Pathoanalyse).
Shiksal-analiza je originalni dubinsko psihološko-psihoanalitički orijenitrani pravac i kompleksna tehnika, koja pripada rekonstruktivnim psihoterapijskim tehnikama.
Rekonstruktivno znači da se pokušava postići duboka promjena u strukturi ličnosti, razračunati sa konfliktima u nesvjesnom, da bi se postigao uvid u nesvjesno, što se inerpretira.
Shikzal-analiza podrazumijeva niz postupaka bliskih autosugestivnim oblicima opuštanja, uz meditativno tonjenje u dnevne snove i katarzu, uvid u vlastite težnje i želje. Doživljaj je poput višeg stupnja autogenog treninga.
Svrha liječenja sudbinsko-analitičkom terapijom je uklanjanje simptoma i "postajanje čovjekom", koji mora moći slobodno birati između danih i osvještenih mogućnosti egzistencije (bitka), jer po Szondiju: SUDBINA JE IZBOR, A IZBOR JE SUDBINA.
Ovdje Szondi uvodi pojam genotropizma.
Genotropizam je proces kojim istovjetni
ili srodni nasljedni čimbenici privlače dvije osobe i drže ih zajedno.
On se očituje kao:
LIBIDO tropizam - izbor LJUBAVNOG OBJEKTA
SOCIO tropizam - izbor PRIJATELJA i SRODNIKA
OPERO tropizam - izbor PROFESIJE
MORBO tropizam - izbor VRSTE BOLESTI
TANATO tropizam - izbor VRSTE SMRTI
Tako možemo izabrati npr.
Homo-sacer profesiju – biti svećenik, opatica ili sudac
Ili homo-sacer bolest – npr. epilepsiju.
Genotropizam može biti izražen i FENOTIPSKI, npr. kada dvoije osobe žive zajedno, ili npr. Camus: čovjek i pas.
Čovjek je prenosilac polarno-suprotstavljenih mogućnosti sudbine,
ali može birati jednu od suprotnosti.
Svaka je sklonost u suprotnosti s nekom drugom sklonošću u istoj osobi.
Zato uz patološku dimenziju postoji i zdrava koja pomaže socijalizaciji.
Szondi razlikuje i tzv. psihoze komunikacije:
- tzv. Verhehrspsychosen – paranoidno ludilo slijepih, nagluhih i gluhih (perceptivna depravacija ili izolacija)
- schiksalpsychosen – životno situacione psihoze (npr. kod zatvorenika ili zarobljenika, Ganserova psihoza, tzv. kverulantsko ludilo)
1. Izbor čini sudbinu.
2. Ako je izbor slobodan, ERGOTROPAN, to je u redu jer omogućuje harmonično funkcioniranje ličnosti putem integracije, participacije i transcedentacije.
3. Međutim, Szondi smatra kako je izbog uglavnom određen GENOTROPNO, tj. na izbor (ili npr. simptome), djeluju potisnuti sadržaji OBITELJSKOG (familijarnog) nesvjesnog, koji mogu nesvjesno upravljati mogućnostima izbora neke osobe, latentnim nasljednim sklonostima, recesivnim abnormalnim nasljeđem (heterozigoti, koji su dakle ljudski konduktori tih sklonosti svojim recesivnim genima) – pa tako sudbina postaje prisilna, ponavljanjem egzistencijalnih formi predaka.
(sličnost s tzv. "neurozom sudbine" – kada netko aranžira svoje neuspjehe ili učestale povrede, ili česte prometne nezgode, nema motiva za promjenu).
HETEROZIS = vitalna nadmoć heterozigota nad homozigotima.
U terapiji treba razumjeti "proboje predaka"
iz obiteljskog nesvjesnog u snove, ideje, simptom (pa je terapija kao
istjerivanje zlih duhova predaka).
Obiteljsko se nesvjesno otkriva istraživanjem rodoslovlja genetski sličnih osoba, koje su bolesniku bliske po krvi, ljubavi, zanimanju, prijateljstvu….
Zato Szondi analizira familijarno nesvjesno, analizom recesivnih gena, tj. krvnih srodnika i genskih srodnika (! Npr. prijatelja, pacijenata i sl...).
Kako doći u dodir sa genski srodnim individuama?
Kako na socijalno prihvatljiv način zadovoljiti potisnute potrebe familijarnog nesvjesnog?
Odgovor je: IZBOROM.
Slavan je Szondijev TEST IZBORA SIMPATIČNIH I ANTIPATIČNIH FIZIONOMIJA.
To je projektivna tehnika, sastoji se od 48 fotografija psihijatrijskih boelsnika, svrstanih u osam grupa, tj. Dijagnostičkih kategorija, u parovima 2 simpatična i dva antipatična.
Test se ponavlja nekoliko puta. Tako dobijemo diferencirani profil koji otkriva strukturu nagona i nasljeđe predaka u pozadini naših nagonskih sklonosti.
EDUKACIJA za "analitičara sudbine" odvija se u sklopu Szondijevog instituta (Szondi-Institut) u Zürichu i traje pet godina.
Postoji i Međunarodno društvo za sudbinsko analitičku terapiju i Međunarodno udruženje sudbinske psihologije.
Praksa se odvija u zvučno izoliranoj sobi, i na kauču.
U terapiji razlikujemo nekoliko faza:
1. pasivna faza je psihoanalitička. Uče se tehnike slobodnih
asocijacija, rasterećenje afekata, analiziraju snovi
2. aktivna, shicksal –analitička psiho-šok terapija. Tehnika asocijacija koje se izazivaju npr. Nakon udarca čekićem, pa se neka bolesnikova riječ ili asocijacija ponavlja oštro, glasno i uečstalo dok se ne postigne potres na asocijativnom putu, tj. Šokantno djelovanje, čime se osvijeste latentni elementi zbog kojih je nastao poremećaj.
3. treća faza je analitička faza – u kojoj je u prvom planu cjelokupni psihički život.
Kontraindikacije su kao i obično – udaljenje od realiteta, opasnosti psihotične dekompenzacije, kverulanti, zločinci.
Indicirana je u svim slučajevima gdje je moguća psihoterapija razgovorom.
E. Koić "Genetika nesvjesnog", prema:
The Body and Soul of Schizophrenia: Contributions from Neurology and Psychiatry
Dr. Jean Oury and Prof. Jacques Schotte
La Borde Clinic and U.C.L. Llouvain.
Dr. Jean Oury is an eminent reformer of psychiatry. Now eighty-three
years of age, he worked closely with Julian de Ajuriaguerra,
the distinguished neurologist who pioneered work on the phantom limb and the
Dr. Oury spearheaded the post-war reformation of the psychiatric institution and has developed the psychotherapy of schizophrenia for over forty years. He has always stressed the necessity of psychiatrists and psychoanalysts alike being grounded in neurology. At the clinic of La Borde, founded by Dr. Oury in 1953, more schizophrenic patients are currently being treated than in any other establishment in France. Dr. Oury's publications have been translated throughout Europe, the Americas and Asia.
Professor Jacques Schotte, retired emeritus professor of U.C.L Llouvain, is a leading scholar on the histories of neurology and phenomenology. For almost fifth years, he has attracted wide acclaim for his scholarship on the psychopathology of Viktor von Weizsäcker. A key writings anthology of Oury, Schotte and Weizsäcker is currently in preparation.
UCL Université catholique de Louvain -Faculty of psychology and educational studies - Centre for psychology of religion
European Diploma of Advanced Studies in Psychology of Religion
A number of European Universities offer a third cycle diploma of advanced studies in psychology of religion. This program is offering to people having a degree in psychology, theology, religious sciences, philosophy, educational sciences, ... who are interested in psychological understanding of religion and religious phenomena as well as interdisciplinarity between psychology and religious studies. It implies the participation in research projects and teams, intellectual openness to different fields, exchanges in international level. In addition to theoretical-research aspect, this program presents an interest for possible applications at work (clinical practice, counseling, understanding contemporary religious phenomena, ...).
SZONDI BIOGRAPHY by Richard Hughes
III. A Life Sketch
Leopold Szondi was born into a large, destitute family in Nyitra, Hungary on March 11, 1893. The family lived in a house without running water or other conveniences. The town of Nyitra is now a part of Czechoslovakia, and the residents consider Szondi to be their “Sigmund Freud.” Szondi’s paternal grandfather was a tenant farmer, who died at an early age. His father, Abraham Szondi, was a shoemaker and was a deeply religious man in the Jewish faith (Larese 1976, 11). He lived like a contemplative, often neglecting his work to study the Hebrew scriptures and the writings of the Hasidim. Neglecting one’s work is a sign of the Hasidic way of Judaism, which strives for a total devotion to God. Because of this tendency, the children had to support the family. Abraham’s first wife had died prematurely, but she had given him two sons and two daughters. He then married Theresa Kohn, who bore him nine children. Leopold was the twelfth son of his father Abraham and the eighth of his mother Theresa. The mother was illiterate and frequently ill.
In 1898 Abraham moved his family to Budapest, so that his children could be educated there. The journey to Budapest signified a break from the primal unity of the birth place for the young Leopold. In Budapest he and his father learned the Hungarian language, but at home they spoke German and Slovak. Abraham was active in the Budapest Jewish community. Every day at 5:00 a.m. he studied Hebrew and on the Sabbath assisted the Rabbi in the synagogue. Leopold was one of the seven sons who accompanied his father to the synagogue.
Leopold attended a public elementary school and the Damjanach Gymnasium, and he was an excellent student. The writings of Fyodor Dostoevsky attracted him, particularly Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov. Szondi felt a close bond with Dostoevsky, and he especially appreciated the novelist’s insights into human violence and restitution. The theme of restitution would remain central throughout Szondi’s life and work.
In 1911, when Leopold was 18, his father died. Leopold observed the Orthodox
Jewish rite of mourning and recited the Kaddish every morning and every evening
for one year. Recitation of this prayer of thanksgiving was done publically
in the synagogue. After completing the grief work, Leopold realized that he
had incorporated his father’s personality as a permanent part of himself. This
memory trace sustained him in his later life. The father-son bond also survived
as an integral part of his mature conception of faith in the sense of a mystical
At some point in his adult life, which I cannot determine, Szondi ceased practicing the rituals of Orthodox Judaism. He would later view orthodox religion as a form of compulsion and superstition (1956,528). Nevertheless, he remained a Jew and a believer in a mystical sense, one who was open to Christianity and deeply respectful of other religions. His Jewish origins would shape his personal being as dynamic and relational. In particular, the Kaddish would influence his understanding of therapy as a technique of struggle, personal affirmation, and hope in the future (Huth 1987,12).
In the same year that his father died, Leopold Szondi began his formal academic training at Pazmany-Peter University in Budapest. He pursued a degree program in medicine. Since his mother, a sister, and a sister-in- law were often ill, the latter with depression, he became interested in the relationship between medicine and psychology. Many years later, Szondi admitted in an interview that he “had a sister who suffered seriously from hysteria. She didn’t dare walk upstairs.... She had to be helped to enter the house. I don’t know a single psychiatrist who hasn’t had someone mentally ill in his family....”(Szombati 1982, 14) Consequently, Szondi worked in the neurological and psychiatric division of the Graf-Appanyi Polyclinic under the direction of Paul Ranschburg. His goal was to study endocrinology as a way to understand experimental psychology.
Szondi’s medical training was interrupted, however, by the outbreak of World War One. Szondi joined the Austro-Hungarian army as a medic. He was involved in considerable combat, particularly on the Carpathian front, for nearly the entire war and was awarded two citations for extraordinary bravery. The trench fighting brought him great anxiety. He saw many men die, some heroically, some pathetically. While at the front he came to the realization that death as such does not exist. Death is an abstraction. Only life and killing exist. Out of the radical environment of the trenches the problem of killing would remain central to Szondi’s thought.
At one point in the fighting Szondi was nearly killed himself, when he was hit in the back with a shell. Instead of penetrating, the projectile landed in Freud’s famous book “The Interpretation of Dreams”, which Szondi carried in his knapsack. So in an apocryphal sense, Freud saved Szondi’s life.
After the armistice in 1918, Szondi returned to Budapest, resuming his studies at the university and his work with Ranschburg in the clinic. However, academic life in Hungary was overshadowed by new and ominous political developments. Since their emancipation in 1867, Hungarian Jews had been closely linked with Magyar culture. The Austro-Hungarian Empire had a state capitalism based upon a feudal economy. Because of their acceptance by the Magyars, Jewish financial and industrial families were associated with the state capitalism. Thus, the association generated resentment by the poor.
In 1919 Bela Kun seized the government and imposed a Marxist program. Kun promoted de-centralization and secularization, thereby alienating much of the population. The Kun government collapsed, and the Jews were blamed for the failure of its Marxist initiatives (Braham 1981, 16). The abortive Kun revolution stimulated a counter-revolutionary wave of terror, waged by anti-Jewish clandestine and paramilitary groups. The terrorists were mainly veterans of the First World War, soldiers of the defeated armies who had difficulty accepting the armistice. Having forged a common loyalty in the trenches, they formed secret societies and advocated anti-intellectual “right wing” ideologies. Whereas the veterans had lost their patriotism during the war, the Hungarian Jewish community maintained loyalty to the nation.
Amid the Kun uprising, Szondi was forced to take his medical examination prematurely,
but he passed it anyway. As a young physician, he decided to specialize in neurology
and psychiatry. Between 1919 and 1926 he worked in the Graf-Appanyi
Polyclinic and the Budapest Hospital, inaugurating hormonal research on retarded
children and later expanding it to include retarded adults as well.
The theoretical framework for these early investigations was that of the psycho-biological
constitution of the whole person. For example, he correlated the psychological
and constitutional types of retardation, as reported in a series of German and
Hungarian language publications between 1921 and 1930 (Fischer 1988). These
years represent the first phase of his research.
In 1926 Szondi married Lili Radvanyi, who was a teacher and nine years younger than he. In the next year he received a dual appointment as Professor of Psychopathology in Pazmany-Peter University Medical School and Director of the medical staff of the Royal Hungarian Institute for Psychopathology and Psychotherapy. He gained considerable professional eminence and belonging to the “Szondi circle” was considered a matter of prestige. Szondi also maintained a private practice. In 1928 a daughter Vera was born and in 1929 a son Peter. Szondi loved his children and always remained close to his family (Huth 1988, 7).
The second phase of Szondi’s research lasted from 1930 to 1937.
He demonstrated that sickness and health are inseparable and that they have
a quantitative relationship. Several path-breaking contributions appeared in
this period. In 1932 he established the hereditary basis of stuttering in relation
to epilepsy and migraines. Thereafter, epilepsy, migraines, and stuttering became
known as the “Szondi Triad” in European psychiatry. In a seminal paper he defined
neuroses, not as symptoms, but as organic disturbances of the central nervous
system which are independent of psychic traumas (1936). Neuroses exist with
respect to the multiple alleles of the major groups of genetically-induced pathologies.
Even if imprinted by trauma, the neurotic is essentially a descendant of a family
that carries a specific hereditary disposition. The familial background causes
the neurotic to become fixed upon an infantile and archaic level of instinctual
drive organization. At the end of this paper Szondi says that he would like
to put Freud’s data on neuroses on a biological foundation.
By the mid-1930s Szondi had established a family register, in which he listed those families that produced a high frequency of abnormal children. His aim was to determine the respective roles of heredity, environment, and internal lesions suffered at birth. When interviewing people, however, he discovered that some could not easily recall information concerning their relatives. Consequently, Szondi developed his test, beginning in 1930, to facilitate psychiatric interviews. The photographs chosen were of patients in eight major psychiatric groups.
In this same period, the counter-revolutionary political forces intensified their campaign to an even more threatening level than that just after the First World War. In 1935 the Gombos government in Hungary agreed, at the request of Marshall Hermann Goring, to install a proto-Nazi Fascist regime. The leadership came out of the secret societies that had conducted the post-war wave of terror in the 1920s. As a result, a pro-Nazi consciousness emerged in Hungary, especially in the younger generation (Braham 1981, 55). Hungarian public policy became officially anti-Jewish and even received support from the Christian churches, particularly Roman Catholic and Reformed branches.
Between 1938 and 1941 three anti-Jewish laws were promulgated. The first reduced
Jewish participation in the professions by 20%. The second, enacted in 1939,
defined Judaism as racially exclusive but exempted converts; this law effected
mainly low-income Jews. The third law appeared in 1941, prohibiting marriage
between Jews and non-Jews. This law stipulated that Jewish identity included
at least three Jewish ancestors. With the passage of these laws Szondi was forced
to resign as professor and head of the institute.
On January 20, 1942 Adolf Hitler approved a plan for the destruction of Hungarian Jewly. This included ghettoization, expropriation of property, and resettlement. Books written by Jewish authors were banned, except for scientific writings. The list of prohibited books does not include Szondi’s, according to information compiled by Randolph Braham (1981, 499). Nevertheless, Szondi’s home was expropriated in 1944. Mass deportation began on May 15, 1944 and lasted 46 days. Szondi was imprisoned in Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp in June, 1944.
During the summer of 1944, the German Eastern Front collapsed, raising the possibility that the war might end before the destruction of the Jewish people could be completed. Therefore, the Nazis assigned priority to the elimination of Hungarian Jewry. As many as 10,000 a day were put to death; instead of being selected for labor details they were sent directly to the gas chambers. Several camps filled up quickly with Hungarian Jews, who became widely respected for their learning.
On December 6, 1944 Szondi and many others were unexpectedly released when
1700 American intellectuals paid a large ransom to Adolf Eichmann. He had originally
planned systematic deportations of the Jews and had financed those emigrations
by securing foreign exchange holdings of wealthy Jews (Levin 1973, 102). Shortly
before his release from Bergen-Belsen, Szondi faced a tense situation:
Our belongings were carefully searched, of course. The SS guard thus came across my four type-written manuscripts, in Hungarian. He took them and threw them on the ground as objects I couldn’t take with me. I looked at him in the eyes and said, “This is my whole life’s work, Herr Obersturmfuhrer.”
The man stood still a moment, then bent over and picked them up, leafing through page by page. He tore out every page on which he saw notes written in pencil, which he said might be notes on camp life. After spending a long and finicky moment at his task, he gave me back the manuscripts. Thanks to him I could publish them after I was freed.
What I want to say by this is that even in the bloodiest Cain there remains a touch of Abel, a touch of humanity: that all hope isn’t lost after all. It’s that perhaps which kept me alive, despite everything (Szombati 1982, 14).
Szondi’s acknowledgement of both good and evil in the SS guard was a crucial moment in his subsequent destiny as a Jew and as a survivor. It echoed the Jewish Halakhah observance of the law, wherein one offers benediction for good and evil.
As part of the so-called Bergen-Belsen transport, Szondi went to Switzerland. He joined a clinic in Nyon and conducted experiments on psychoshock therapy. In the academic year 1945-1946. he lectured at the Institute of Applied Psychology in Zurich. In 1946 he decided to settle permanently in Zurich. His decision was influenced by the fact that Eugen Bleuler was also in Zurich. Bleuler was an internationally known psychiatrist, pioneering investigator of schizophrenia, and administrator of Burgholzli Hospital. Once in Zurich Szondi applied for and received permission to start a psychiatric practice. Thirteen years later, in 1959, he became a Swiss citizen. In 1969 the Szondi Institute (2) founded in Zurich as a center for teaching and research. The staff of the institute publishes the journal Szondiana.
Most of Szondi’s major works were published in the post-war period.
With the exception of several books on specific topics and many essays, the
system comprises five basic books. They are large German volumes and
characterized by extensive case studies, wide learning, and critical dialogue
with other psychologies, which are principally psychoanalysis, Jungian archetypal
psychology, and existential analysis.
His first major work, containing his family studies, appeared two months before his imprisonment in Bergen-Belsen (1944). Entitled “The Analysis of Destiny (Schicksalsanalyse)”, it would go through three other editions (1948, 1965, 1978). Unless otherwise stated, the fourth edition (1978) will be cited in this book. Additionally, Szondi published major volumes on psychopathology (1952), ego psychology (1956), diagnosis (1960), and therapy (1963a).
The actual formation of the system, as evidenced in the literature, took shape between 1937 and 1963. Writing in an autobiographical essay, Szondi admits that in those years he was digging in “an underground tunnel.” This means that he was exploring the nature of the extended family, while the model of early childhood dominated psychology. Having been born in the nineteenth century, Szondi observes that the world had changed drastically. He notes that in his own field cultural revolutions had taken the place of the older psychological disciplines. For example, group therapy appeared in the place of individual therapy. “The consequence of this group psychotherapy was not a deep insight into the unconscious structure of individuals but mainly an autistic disinhibition of aggression” (Pongratz 1973, 433). Sometimes in therapy sessions groups assault the rights of individuals. Szondi explains that this trend is a culmination of the dehumanization of the Second World War.
During his old age, Szondi suffered profound personal sorrow from tragedies
involving his two children. Peter Szondi had become a distinguished
classics scholar and literary critic at the University of Berlin. He had published
a book on the nature of tragedy (P. Szondi 1964). He has been described as the
opposite of his father, one who feared he lacked the great intellectual power
of the father (Huth 1987, 7). Sadly, in the early 1970s Peter died by
suicide. With reference to Peter’s death his father said that literary
critics forget to write and then die but that writers forget to die and then
write. In 1978 his daughter Vera died of tuberculosis. She
was a physician and had converted to Christianity. Vera Szondi published a book
on suicide in light of her brother’s death (V. Szondi 1975). After her death,
Szondi was driven to pray and to grieve privately. Because of her influence,
Szondi had been open to Christianity, even while remaining a Jew.
Szondi survived his daughter by eight years. Feeling his power waning at the end, he confided to a friend: “I have now put the analysis of destiny behind me. It no longer interests me. I expect that something new will befall me” (Huth 1987, 8). In late 1985 he said to the same friend: “This winter I will die.” He died on January 24, 1986, and his wife Lili died after a short illness on August 18, 1986.